Lithium-ion Batteries VS Lead-acid Batteries

Introduction of lithium-ion batteries

The lithium-ion battery is a modern, high-performance rechargeable battery that is widely utilized in portable electronic gadgets, electric cars, and energy storage systems. It uses lithium ions as the primary charge carrier, storing and releasing electrical energy when lithium ions flow between the positive and negative electrodes.


1. High energy density

Lithium-ion batteries are notable for their high energy density. It describes the quantity of energy stored per unit volume or weight. In contrast, lithium-ion batteries can hold more energy than lead-acid batteries. This feature has made lithium-ion batteries the favored option for a wide range of mobile devices, electric vehicles, and other applications. For example, a tiny lithium-ion battery can extend the battery life of a smartphone or increase the driving range of an electric vehicle.

2. Low self-discharge rate

A low self-discharge rate is another significant feature of lithium-ion batteries. It describes the battery’s ability to maintain a low charge loss even while not in use for extended periods of time. This means that even if a lithium-ion battery is stored for an extended period of time and then used again, the charge loss is minimal. This makes lithium-ion batteries more reliable in applications such as emergency and backup power.

3. Fast Charging Capability

Lithium-ion batteries have fast charging ability, which is one of the important reasons why many users choose it. In contrast, lithium-ion batteries can finish charging in a shorter period of time, compared with lead-acid batteries. This provides users with a more convenient charging experience, especially when frequent charging is required in daily life and work.

4. Long cycle life

One of the benefits of lithium-ion batteries is their long cycle life, which is one of the primary reasons they are so frequently utilized. Li-ion batteries can withstand thousands of charge/discharge cycles without diminishing performance. This means that devices powered by lithium-ion batteries can operate for extended periods of time without requiring frequent battery replacements, lowering maintenance costs and increasing device life. The long cycle life of lithium-ion batteries makes them the ideal choice for solar energy storage systems, medical equipment, and other applications that require long-term dependable power supplies.

In summary, high energy density, low self-discharge rate, fast charging capability and long cycle life make Li-ion batteries the mainstream choice for today’s electronics and energy storage. As the best lithium-ion batteries, they will continue to push the boundaries of technology and bring more convenience and possibilities to people’s lives. 

In addition to the advantages mentioned above, the lithium batteries produced by Enerforce also have these advantages: Low internal resistance,stable performance Built-in PCB/BMS,High cycle times Own explosion-proof valve, safe and stable Low self-discharge and long life.



1. High cost:

Lithium-ion batteries are more expensive compared to other types of batteries such as lead-acid batteries. This is mainly due to the complexity of the production process and the scarcity of raw materials. The high price limits the promotion and popularization of lithium-ion batteries in a number of large-scale applications, especially in areas where low cost is required.

2.Safety issues:

There is a risk of overheating, fire and explosion, which requires a stringent battery management system (BMS) to monitor and protect.

Introduction of Lead-Acid Batteries 

The lead-acid battery is a chemical battery whose main components include lead (Pb) and lead dioxide (PbO2) as electrodes, and sulfuric acid (H2SO4) as the electrolyte. This battery converts chemical energy into electrical energy through an electrochemical reaction, and was one of the first rechargeable batteries in history to be developed and put into commercial use.


1.Low cost:

Lead-acid batteries have lower production costs, compared with other types of batteries (such as lithium-ion batteries) is more economical, suitable for mass production and use.

2.Mature technology:

Lead-acid battery technology is mature, the production process is simple and stable, and has a large number of industrial and commercial applications.

3.Good high rate discharge performance:

Lead-acid batteries perform well in applications that require high current discharge, such as instantaneous high current discharge when starting a car engine.


1. Low energy density:

Lead-acid batteries have a low energy density, storing less power per unit weight or volume. This limits their applicability in applications that demand high energy density.

2. High self-discharge rate:

Lead-acid batteries self-discharge during storage, causing a steady reduction in charge and necessitating regular recharging to maintain performance.

3.Slow charging rate:

Lead-acid batteries are slow to charge compared to other battery types, especially in the final stages of a full charge, where charging takes longer.

4.Environmental impact:

Lead is a toxic metal that is very harmful to the environment and human health. Lead-acid batteries may cause serious environmental pollution if they are not handled properly during production, use and disposal.

Comparison of Lithium-Ion and Lead-Acid Batteries


Lead Acid



Energy Density


Lead Acid battery<

Sodiumion battery<

Lithium ion battery


30~50 wh/kg

100~150 wh/kg

150~250 Wh/kg


~2.1 V

2.8~3.5 V

3.0~4.5 V



2000+ Times

3000+ Times







Price us$/kg





0.3 (NazCO;)




75% in Americas

20 (LizCO;)



NlBs: Al foil (cheap) for both positive and negative electrodes


LlBs: Cu foil (expensive) for negative and Al foil for positive


Lead Acid

Lithium-ion Battery

Positive electrode

lead dioxide (Pb2)

lithium oxide

Negative Electrode

spongy lead

Charcoal material


dilute sulfuric acid solution

Polymer electrolyte

Cell voltage



Specific energy(Wh/kg)










Number of cycles (times)



Self-discharge rate per month



Operating temperature (°C)



harmful substance




Abundant and cheap raw materials, technology



High energy density, long life, most self-discharge rate, Good safety, environmentally friendly


Low specific energy, short life, over

Poor charging and discharging, environmental pollution


Higher cost, need protection board to protect

Main applications (application trends)

Automobile starter batteries, electric

vehicle batteries


Digital, model airplane, electric car, bus



Technology maturity


Development period

With or without memory effect



Development Trend of Lithium-Ion Battery

Raw material costs for lithium-ion batteries fall

1.Decline in raw material costs for lithium-ion batteries

Declining raw material prices: As the global production capacity of key raw materials for lithium-ion batteries, such as lithium, cobalt and nickel, increases and the supply chain gradually stabilizes, the prices of these materials are declining. For example, more lithium mines are being developed and lithium extraction technology is improving, thus reducing raw material costs.

2.Improvements in production processes

Improvements in lithium-ion battery production processes and the advancement of large-scale production are also reducing the production cost per unit of battery. Advanced manufacturing technologies and automated production lines have improved production efficiency and reduced waste, thereby lowering production costs.

3.Application of new materials

Researchers are developing new battery materials, such as silicon-based anode materials and solid-state electrolytes, which not only enhance battery performance but also reduce production costs. The application of these new materials will further promote the popularization of lithium-ion batteries.

High cycle life and long life cost-effective advantage highlights

1.Long cycle life

The cycle life of lithium-ion batteries continues to improve, and some new batteries have been able to achieve more than 5,000 charge/discharge cycles. This allows lithium-ion batteries to have a longer service life in electric vehicles, energy storage systems and other fields, reducing the frequency of replacement and lowering the overall cost of ownership.


With the decline in raw material costs and improved production efficiency, the unit cost of lithium-ion batteries has fallen, and their cost-effective advantage is becoming increasingly prominent. Despite the high initial investment, due to its long cycle life and high energy density, lithium-ion batteries in the long-term use of the overall cost advantage gradually appeared.

3.Widely used

lithium-ion batteries have been widely used in electric vehicles, portable electronic devices, renewable energy storage systems and other fields. Its cost-effective advantages have prompted more industries to choose lithium-ion batteries as energy solutions, driving the growth of its market demand.

Lithium-ion batteries will continue to benefit from the cost-effective advantages brought about by declining raw material costs and high-cycle long life in future development. With the continuous progress of technology and the continuous growth of market demand, lithium-ion batteries will show their advantages in more fields and become a key technology for energy storage and application. In the future, lithium-ion batteries are expected to play an important role in a wider range of application scenarios, contributing more to sustainable development and the promotion of green energy.

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